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Region of interest
maxilla and mandible
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1. Extraction defect at site 21
The extraction socket at site 21 exhibits minimal evidence of reparative bone formation, which suggests early osseous healing. This extraction socket communicates with the incisive foramen. The buccal and palatal cortical plates have been lost at this site.The presence of this defect reduces the bone volume available for implant placement.
Generalized periodontal bone loss
There is generalized moderate to severe horizontal bone loss involving the remaining dentition.
Normal remaining edentulous sites in maxilla and mandible
The remaining edentulous sites in the maxilla and mandible appear normal radiographically. No intraosseous pathology is present. Note that pneumatization of the bilateral posterior maxillary alveolar processes reduces the bone volume available for implant placement.
3. Dense bone island at site 27Bu
A small dense bone island is present at the buccal aspect of the alveolar process at site 27. This is a non-significant incidental finding that will not impede implant placement.
2. Retained root tip at site 27P
A small ovoid radiopacity is present in the palatal aspect of the alveolar process at site 27, which exhibits a density similar to dentin. This radiopacity is surrounded by a faint periodontal ligament space and contains a root canal system. The surrounding alveolar bone appears normal. This likely represents a retained root tip, and its removal prior to regional implant placement may be considered.
4. Large mucous retention cyst in right maxillary sinus: possible impediment for sinus lift surgery
A large mucous retention cyst is evident along the floor of the left maxillary sinus. In the absence of any sinus related symptoms, this is a non-significant incidental finding, but may impede the sinus lift.
Sagittal views of the left maxillary sinus: No impediment for sinus lift surgery
These sagittal cross-sectional images demonstrate the presence of normal mucosal thickening on the floor of the left maxillary sinus. There are no significant impediments to a potential sinus lift procedure.
Sagittal views of the right maxillary sinus
These sagittal cross-sectional images demonstrate the presence of mucous retention cysts and mild mucositis within the right maxillary sinus. This level of mucosal thickening may impede a potential sinus lift procedure.
5. Possible osteoma adjacent to the inferior border o the mandible
A well defined bony exostosis is present in the inferior/lingual aspect of the right mandible apical to site 43/44. This entity is composed of cortical bone and its partially continuous with the underlying inferior mandibular cortex. Based on the shape of the protruding/pedunculated bone, this most likely represents an osteoma, which should be monitored for growth over time. The patient should be assessed for the possible additional osteomas in the body and to rule out associated syndrome.
Orthogonal views of the osteoma
These orthogonal cross-sectional images demonstrate the approximate mesiodistal, buccolingual, and coronoapical dimensions of the osteoma adjacent to the right mandibular inferior border.
6. Palatine tonsilloliths
Tonsilloliths are present in the palatine tonsils. This is an incidental finding with no clinical significance.
7. Lingual tonsillolith
A tonsillolith is present in the lingual tonsil. This is a non-significant incidental finding.